Disrupted Data Flow
Everyone at one time or another has been frustrated by a computerized device losing or confusing data. Those who work with local area networks have sat around looking at their watches wondering when will the system work right.
Sometimes the problem lies in software, but quite often the problem results from power quality issues.
While most of us think of power quality only impacting our sensitive electronic components, aspects of the power, in particular a new disturbance known as harmonic distortion, affect our computers and our normal loads such as motors, transformers, and the like. The entire system, from transmission to distribution to utilization, is now subject to damage and destruction from various power quality phenomena.
Power anomalies come in many forms and go by many names. Briefly, these disturbances are broken down into six general categories. Although not mentioned as a separate category, please note that the power system itself is a major contributor to existing power quality problems, especially the continuity and quality of the grounding connections.
Transients, the first category, are sub cycle disturbances with a very fast voltage change. Their typical frequencies range from the tens to the hundreds of kilohertz, some even into megahertz. The voltage excursions range from the hundreds to thousands of volts. Transients are also called spikes, impulses, and surges.
The second category, momentary interruptions, refers to a loss of voltage for periods of less than a cycle to several cycles. They do not last long enough to be called outages, but they are.
Voltage sags and swells are the third category. These are variations in the RMS voltage from about one half cycle up to several seconds. They are characterized by changes in the RMS value of the voltage. Sags refer to a reduction in the voltage, while swells deal with an increase.
Should a sag or swell last for more than simply several seconds, we call it an undervoltage or overvoltage. This is the fourth category. These disturbances may last indefinitely.
The fifth category of power anomalies is harmonic distortion. If the voltage or current waveshape is not sinusoidal, it is described as distorted. Since our entire power system was developed with sine waves in mind, harmonic distortion challenges many of our basic concepts about how to transmit, distribute, use and maintain electric power.
The last category is electrical noise, or sometimes called electromagnetic interference, or EMI. EMI consists of high frequency, low voltage signals coupled onto the power lines. Frequencies may vary from the kilohertz range to the megahertz level, with magnitudes up to 10 or 20 volts.