This category includes a wide range of applications serving the hospitality and recreational activities of people. Refer to the specific various applications for more detailed information on the specific types.


Where applicable, loads should be determined individually for each space; however with a central plant system, a block load should also be determined. Separate air handlers and distribution are usually used for each zone.

Typical System

In large facilities, central plant systems are often used. Central plant designs may also incorporate heat recovery, thermal storage, and other energy conservation opportunities such as variable speed drive on water pumping, and temperature reset on chilled and hot water distribution circuits. These buildings are also excellent opportunities for a central control system for fire, smoke and security, billing for central plant use, maintenance control and operations, and energy management.

In smaller facilities, or where individual room control is a factor, water source heat pumps are often considered.

Recommendations/Energy Services Opportunities

  • Older inefficient systems should be investigated for upgrading or replacement, particularly if CFC refrigerants are used.
  • Where demand and/or on-peak energy costs are high, investigate thermal storage,
  • Add energy conservation concepts discussed above if not already in use,
  • Replace antiquated or inappropriate control systems.

Links to Related Topics

Office Buildings
Health Care Facilities
Food Stores
Food Service
Places of Worship
Places of Assembly
Libraries & Museums